Publications

OSS
978-9938-933-05-5
2017

This atlas is meant to be used by decision-makers, development partners and the general public.
The purpose of the atlas, containing some 30 maps and graphs derived from an OSS regional study on the Iullemeden, Taoudeni/Tanezrouft Aquifer System, is to provide information on the availability and use of water resources in this region of seven countries (Algeria, Benin, Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania, Niger and Nigeria).
The atlas also offers the reader illustrations concerning water and the strategic role it plays in transboundary cooperation, food security, health, and socio-economic development to help cope with global changes.

GICRESAIT
GICRESAIT Atlas
Water Resources Management
Atlas
OSS
978-9973-856-49-4
2011

The establishment of the database (DB) of the IAS has allowed gathering and homogenizing all the available information on this basin in a consistent relational structure. This architecture facilitated the set of handlings, queries and thematic maps that this project could occur.

The system developed during the project, which focuses on the links Database-GIS-Model was very useful and gives countries a basis for developing effective management tools. This system is more efficient in short time compared with the time needed, just a few years ago, updating a model after a change in mesh, the integration of new data or the incorporation of a new scenario on water abstraction.

Regarding to the content of the Databases, considerable progress has been made, but the anomalies and shortcomings should be corrected with the national teams.

In order to climb to a higher level of reliability and to ensure the quality of the data, it is necessary to work more on the data collected and to define clear procedures for collecting new data.

The first task can be achieved by the countries themselves using the available tools and resources provided by the project. Regarding to the future updates, they will be reliable only if the procedures for collecting, coding and control are carried out at national level. Decentralization of management and handlings resources should be expected and encouraged to facilitate future updates and regular data.

GICRESAIT
Common Database
Water Resources Management
Studies & Reports
OSS
978-9973-856-85-2
2014

The North-Western Sahara Aquifer System (SASS) is a basin of over 1,000,000 km2 shared by three countries (Algeria, Tunisia, Libya) whose water reserves are substantial with an almost fossilized aspect.

Previous studies on the SASS had focused on the characteristics and operation of the aquifer as well as the evolution of abstractions, but rarely on the valuation of the water. Phase III of the SASS project aims to restore this equilibrum by promoting the sustainable management of water resources which is the most limiting factor to any stable economic activity.

This study related to socioeconomic aspects of irrigation represents one of the two main components of the SASS III project. It aims to enrich the achievements of the hydrogeological knowledge of water resources through socio-economic and environmental data. It analyzes the operation of farms and especially the actual behavior of the irrigators with particular emphasis on ability to adapt to the challenges that threaten the sustainability of the development.

The analysis of surveys done on 3,000 farmers helped identify the main constraints to water productivity, but also to quantify the scope of their economic impact and to make recommendations to enhance the value of the resource.

SASS
Socio-economic aspects
Water Resources Management
Studies & Reports
OSS
9973-856-00-7
2004

Serving as a driving and facilitating force, OSS, in carrying out the SASS Programme, relies first and foremost on the expertise available in specialised, well experienced institutions of the three countries as well as on broad international partnership.

The North-Western Sahara Aquifer System, (NWSAS), shared by Algeria, Tunisia and Libya, has considerable water reserves that cannot be totally exploited and are only very partially renewed. The NWSAS area over a million km2 and is composed of two major aquifers layers, the Continental Intercalary and the Terminal Complex. Over the last thirty years, abstraction by drilling has risen from 0.6 to 2.5 billion m3/yr. This rate of abstraction involves many risks: strong impact on neighbouring countries, salinisation, elimination of artesianism, drying up of outlets, etc. Simulations on the NWSAS Model have enabled OSS to pinpoint the location of the most vulnerable areas and map the risks facing the aquifer system. The three countries concerned by the future of the NWSAS will need to work together to develop a joint management system for the basin. A consultation mechanism needs to be instituted and gradually put into operation.

The present report is part of a set of three volumes which sum up the scientific activity of the project "North-Western Sahara Aquifer System" (SASS/OSS). It present the physiographic and hydrogeological data which have been taken into consideration in developing the digital model that simulates the hydrodynamic behaviour of the Saharan aquifers.

The present report presents respectively:

the aquifer formations of the North-Western Sahara and their schematisation with a view to their hydrogeological modelling;
the various hydrogeological characteristics of the aquifers of this system through an analysis that is focused on hydraulic exchanges and the impact of the exploitation on piezometry and on water salinity;
the chemical quality of the water and its isotopic characteristics allowing a better understanding of the hydrodynamic operating of the system.

SASS
Hydrogeology
Water Resources Management
Studies & Reports
OSS
9773-856-01-5
2004

Serving as a driving and facilitating force, OSS, in carrying out the SASS Programme, relies first and foremost on the expertise available in specialised, well experienced institutions of the three countries as well as on broad international partnership.

The North-Western Sahara Aquifer System, (NWSAS), shared by Algeria, Tunisia and Libya, has considerable water reserves that cannot be totally exploited and are only very partially renewed. The NWSAS area over a million km2 and is composed of two major aquifers layers, the Continental Intercalary and the Terminal Complex. Over the last thirty years, abstraction by drilling has risen from 0.6 to 2.5 billion m3/yr. This rate of abstraction involves many risks: strong impact on neighbouring countries, salinisation, elimination of artesianism, drying up of outlets, etc. Simulations on the NWSAS Model have enabled OSS to pinpoint the location of the most vulnerable areas and map the risks facing the aquifer system. The three countries concerned by the future of the NWSAS will need to work together to develop a joint management system for the basin. A consultation mechanism needs to be instituted and gradually put into operation.

The present report relates to the "Data Base & Geographic Information System". It summarizes the various reports drafted for the phases of this action. It is composed of two main parts:

the first part presents the architecture of this data base and of the software products made during the project ;
the second part gives a detailed description of the data collected, both by the national teams of the countries and by the permanent SASS team.

SASS
Data Base and GIS
Water Resources Management
Studies & Reports
OSS
9773-856-02-3
2004

Serving as a driving and facilitating force, OSS, in carrying out the SASS Programme, relies first and foremost on the expertise available in specialised, well experienced institutions of the three countries as well as on broad international partnership.

The North-Western Sahara Aquifer System, (NWSAS), shared by Algeria, Tunisia and Libya, has considerable water reserves that cannot be totally exploited and are only very partially renewed. The NWSAS area over a million km2 and is composed of two major aquifers layers, the Continental Intercalary and the Terminal Complex. Over the last thirty years, abstraction by drilling has risen from 0.6 to 2.5 billion m3/yr. This rate of abstraction involves many risks: strong impact on neighbouring countries, salinisation, elimination of artesianism, drying up of outlets, etc. Simulations on the NWSAS Model have enabled OSS to pinpoint the location of the most vulnerable areas and map the risks facing the aquifer system. The three countries concerned by the future of the NWSAS will need to work together to develop a joint management system for the basin. A consultation mechanism needs to be instituted and gradually put into operation.

This final report gives an account of all the works conducted in the framework of NWSAS project, between January 2000 and June 2002, for the design of a mathematical model of the North-Western Sahara Aquifer System.

This document is organized in three parts:

One first part called: Characterization of the Aquifer System and Conceptual Model, namely including the geological, hydrological and hydro-dynamic characterization of the basin,
The second part is called: Design of the Mathematical Model, describing the construction and calibration phases of the model in steady and transient states,
The third part is devoted to the Execution of Predictive Simulations. This part successively develop: the definition and execution of exploratory simulations, the construction of a NWSAS miniature model to investigate the reservoir, the definition and performing of predictive simulations.

SASS
Mathematical model
Water Resources Management
Studies & Reports
OSS & IGAD
978-9973-856-58-6
2011

Information gathered from National Study Reports, lessons learned from literature on international River Basin Organizations, and reference made to the relevant findings of other Components of this Project together with personal experience were made use of in understanding the characteristics of the river basins, the key development areas for regional cooperation, the disadvantages of non-cooperation, and the benefits that can accrue because of joint sub-regional actions.
National studies reviewed did not include specific studies on national institutional frameworks for water resources development and management of the seven countries of IGAD apart from the inclusion of scattered information and data under the studies targeting water resources, socio-economic, and environment.
Common vision, mission, broad objectives, policies, and strategies for the development and management of areas of common interest have been developed. Strategic Elements were identified for the harmonization of strategies.
Capacity building is a continuous process reflecting the need of the society to respond to new ideas and technologies and changing social and political realities. The lack of adequate institutional capacities in the water sector in the IGAD countries, for joint development and management of shared water resources, is imposing severe limitation to water resources development and management.
The policy, legal, and institutional frameworks as well as, the common strategies and their key elements, the protocol for information and data sharing and exchange, and the plans for human and institutional capacity building are similar to that for the joint TRBO, and can be applied to a single or more shared river basin resources in the IGAD Sub-Region.
Development of a road map for establishing Transboundary River Basin Organization(s) (TRBO) includes the setting up of a transboundary consultative mechanism for each basin. Policies, strategies, and objectives of cooperation and how to achieve them shall be set out in the proposed enabling legal instruments to be signed by the riparian Member States of IGAD to the agreement

IGAD
Institutional framework component
Water Resources Management
Studies & Reports
OSS
978-9973-856-86-9
2014

The North-Western Sahara Aquifer System (SASS) is a basin of over 1,000,000 km2 shared by three countries (Algeria, Tunisia, Libya) whose water reserves are substantial with an almost fossilized aspect. The implementation of “Agricultural Demonstration Pilots” within the framework of the SASS III project was intended to demonstrate within a participatory approach, the feasibility, effectiveness and efficiency of technical solutions to local problems of unsustainability management and operation of the SASS resource in irrigation in the three countries sharing the resource.

Six agricultural demonstration pilots at farm scale level, with different themes, were implemented by farmers themselves in the three countries. The technical innovations introduced aimed at the intensification of cropping systems, water saving and the improvement of the resource’s valorization through the selection of high added value crops.

The results obtained after two crops in the three countries help confirm the availability of efficient technical solutions for the renovation of cropping systems and making them viable at farm level. What remains to be done, however, is validating these results and making them reliable on a larger spatial scale in pilot “production systems” integrating the various local structural constraints to the development of irrigation in the SASS area.

SASS
Agricultural demonstration pilots
Water Resources Management
Studies & Reports
OSS & IGAD
978-9973-856-59-3
2011

Several socioeconomic challenges have underscored the analysis of the water resources of the IGAD Sub-region and their uses. The countries of the sub-region are in an era of serious water shortages, which raises the spectre of looming water insecurity and the prospect of intensified competition for water in the future. The main challenge for the sub-region is, among others, how the water resources will be managed to meet rising food demand while at the same time protecting access of the poor and vulnerable people to the water that sustains their well-being.

This report is based on national data which were significantly complemented and where necessary upgraded with complementary data and information from regional and international sources. To achieve the desired results more effectively, the study focused the assessment and analysis of water use in the most important water-using sectors (this was largely dictated by lack or inadequacy of data for the other sectors), namely water uses in the domestic, agriculture and industrial sectors.

Two models (Water Use Model and PODIUMSIM Model) were examined for potential application in the quantification, assessment and projection of water use. Both models provide tools for simulation of alternative scenarios of future water demand with respect to the variations of the key demand drivers. While the full application of the models was proscribed by insufficient data, they nonetheless provided the conceptual framework used in this study to work projections and scenarios of future water demand.

Key results of the socioeconomic component included, firstly the detailed assessment of the key drivers of water demand in the sub-region, and secondly the projections of future water needs in various scenarios.

While several factors will drive the pressures on water resources, population and its dynamics will be the primary driver of all demands, including water demand (Chapter 6). High population growth is outstripping the pace at which water resources are being developed to meet the various socioeconomic needs of the sub-region. Associated with this is the low and unbalanced funding of the water and sanitation sector, with the tendency to concentrate water infrastructure in the urban centers and giving lower priority to rural areas.

The water issues of the sub-region are exacerbated by the fact that over 75% of the sub-region is classified as ASAL – these areas which are mostly water stressed and have low agricultural potential.

This report made recommendations (i) on population and its impacts on water demand; (ii) on adjustment of water demand and food security; and (iii) on data and data sharing

IGAD
Socioeconomic component
Water Resources Management
Studies & Reports
OSS
978-9973-856-64-7
2011

Following an international competitive bidding process by Sahara and Sahel Observatory (OSS), SEREFACO Consultants Limited was contracted to undertake this assignment on “Mapping, Assessment and Management of Transboundary Water Resources in the IGAD Sub-region Project Covering Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda”. The main objective of this consultancy service was to assess and analyze the water resources, socio-economic and environmental condition of the sub region and come up with a set of strategy, recommendations, and action plans to enable member states to implement and operate an integrated trans-boundary water resources management process. The project focused on acquiring data, information and knowledge to support more sustainable shared water resources management policies and strategies at national and sub-regional levels.

This report aims at presenting the major findings of the assignment and the proposed strategic recommendations and action plans thereof for moving forward with the implementation and operation of IWRM processes in the IGAD Sub region. In particular, the report includes:

A formulation of strategies for enhancing regional cooperation;
A framework and guidelines for regional procedures and coordination mechanisms for information production, dissemination and sharing;
An assessment of water resources in the IGAD Sub-region;
A socioeconomic assessment of water demand and use in the IGAD Sub-region;
An assessment of the key environmental issues affecting the IGAD countries;
Development of a regional database and GIS;
An elaboration of medium and long term capacity building strategies for planning and managing trans-boundary programmes;
The development of a road map for establishing a Transboundary River Basin Organization.
This project was financed by African Water Facility grant made available to IGAD for undertaking the study of the trans-boundary water resources of the sub-region excluding the Nile basin which is currently covered by the program of Nile Basin Initiative. OSS was the Client on behalf of IGAD in this assignment

IGAD
Overview & general recommendations
Water Resources Management
Studies & Reports