Publications

OSS
978-9973-856-55-5
2011

The Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis recommended by the Global Environment Fund has been applied to the transboundary groundwater of the Iullemeden Aquifer System shared by Mali, Niger and Nigeria. The Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis is a scientific and technical fact-finding analysis based on technical and scientific information available and verified, to examine the state of the environment and the causes of its degradation, focusing on transboundary problems without ignoring national concerns and priorities.

Three major transboundary risks were identified: (1) reducing the availability of the water resource, (2) degradation of water quality, and (3) the impacts of climate variability/change. This required the development of a database with more than 17000 water points, a Geographic Information System and a mathematical model. This model has among other things, highlighted the overexploitation of the resource since 1995 and the interconnection between the Niger River and the aquifers. The immediate, root and underlying causes (including the governance of water) of these risks were analyzed.

The Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis is a participatory approach involving all stakeholders concerned with the issue. To this end, it contributes to strengthen solidarity and confidence between them.

GICRESAIT
GEF TDA/SAP approach
Water Resources Management
Studies & Reports
OSS
978-9973-856-54-8
2011

The Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis recommended by the Global Environment Fund has been applied to transboundary waters of the Iullemeden Aquifer System (IAS) shared by Mali, Niger and Nigeria. It allowed identifying three major transboundary risks namely (1) the reduction of resource availability, (2) degradation of water quality, and (3) the impact of variability / climate change.

Recognizing the need for a regional approach for shared groundwater management to face those transboundary risks for which efforts of one country cannot find a sustainable solution, the three countries committed themselves in a process of joint water resources management. Through this process, they plan to mitigate the negative impacts of these risks on their shared groundwater resources.

The policy and strategy elements to mitigate these risks have been designed to help countries in formulating their policies and strategies accompanied by an action plan in the medium and long term. These elements include the political, socio-economic and environmental dimension. They were developed by conducting the analysis of solutions for each risk examined according to (a) hydrogeological and environmental (b) socio-economic, and (c) legal and institutional dimensions.

To develop this policy at regional level, national legislation on water should be updated taking into account the achievements of the project in terms of the methods and management of transboundary groundwater regimes.

GICRESAIT
Policy elements for transboundary risks reduction
Water Resources Management
Studies & Reports
OSS
978-9973-856-29-6
2008
GICRESAIT
Iullemeden Aquifer System
Water Resources Management
Advocacy
OSS
978-9973-856-56-2
2011

The Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis recommended by the Global Environment Fund has been applied to transboundary waters of the Iullemeden Aquifer System (IAS) shared by Mali, Niger and Nigeria. It allowed identifying three major transboundary risks namely (1) the reduction of resource availability, (2) degradation of water quality, and (3) the impact of variability / climate change.

Recognizing the need for a regional approach for shared groundwater management to face those transboundary risks for which efforts of one country cannot find a sustainable solution, the three countries committed themselves in a process of joint water resources management. Through this process, they plan to mitigate the negative impacts of these risks on their shared groundwater resources.

Through this process, policy and strategy elements for mitigating these risks have been developed as well as communication tools in order to promote an early warning system, a participatory approach to better manage these risks, and finally a mechanism for monitoring transboundary water resources. A Memorandum of Understanding with its roadmap was adopted by the three countries for establishing a consultation mechanism, a legal consultation for a joint management and equitable and rational of their common resources.

GICRESAIT
The consultative framework for managing transboundary risks
Water Resources Management
Studies & Reports
OSS
978-9973-856-64-7
2011

Following an international competitive bidding process by Sahara and Sahel Observatory (OSS), SEREFACO Consultants Limited was contracted to undertake this assignment on “Mapping, Assessment and Management of Transboundary Water Resources in the IGAD Sub-region Project Covering Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda”. The main objective of this consultancy service was to assess and analyze the water resources, socio-economic and environmental condition of the sub region and come up with a set of strategy, recommendations, and action plans to enable member states to implement and operate an integrated trans-boundary water resources management process. The project focused on acquiring data, information and knowledge to support more sustainable shared water resources management policies and strategies at national and sub-regional levels.

This report aims at presenting the major findings of the assignment and the proposed strategic recommendations and action plans thereof for moving forward with the implementation and operation of IWRM processes in the IGAD Sub region. In particular, the report includes:

A formulation of strategies for enhancing regional cooperation;
A framework and guidelines for regional procedures and coordination mechanisms for information production, dissemination and sharing;
An assessment of water resources in the IGAD Sub-region;
A socioeconomic assessment of water demand and use in the IGAD Sub-region;
An assessment of the key environmental issues affecting the IGAD countries;
Development of a regional database and GIS;
An elaboration of medium and long term capacity building strategies for planning and managing trans-boundary programmes;
The development of a road map for establishing a Transboundary River Basin Organization.
This project was financed by African Water Facility grant made available to IGAD for undertaking the study of the trans-boundary water resources of the sub-region excluding the Nile basin which is currently covered by the program of Nile Basin Initiative. OSS was the Client on behalf of IGAD in this assignment

IGAD
Overview & general recommendations
Water Resources Management
Studies & Reports
OSS
978-9973-856-86-9
2014

The North-Western Sahara Aquifer System (SASS) is a basin of over 1,000,000 km2 shared by three countries (Algeria, Tunisia, Libya) whose water reserves are substantial with an almost fossilized aspect. The implementation of “Agricultural Demonstration Pilots” within the framework of the SASS III project was intended to demonstrate within a participatory approach, the feasibility, effectiveness and efficiency of technical solutions to local problems of unsustainability management and operation of the SASS resource in irrigation in the three countries sharing the resource.

Six agricultural demonstration pilots at farm scale level, with different themes, were implemented by farmers themselves in the three countries. The technical innovations introduced aimed at the intensification of cropping systems, water saving and the improvement of the resource’s valorization through the selection of high added value crops.

The results obtained after two crops in the three countries help confirm the availability of efficient technical solutions for the renovation of cropping systems and making them viable at farm level. What remains to be done, however, is validating these results and making them reliable on a larger spatial scale in pilot “production systems” integrating the various local structural constraints to the development of irrigation in the SASS area.

SASS
Agricultural demonstration pilots
Water Resources Management
Studies & Reports
OSS & IGAD
978-9973-856-58-6
2011

Information gathered from National Study Reports, lessons learned from literature on international River Basin Organizations, and reference made to the relevant findings of other Components of this Project together with personal experience were made use of in understanding the characteristics of the river basins, the key development areas for regional cooperation, the disadvantages of non-cooperation, and the benefits that can accrue because of joint sub-regional actions.
National studies reviewed did not include specific studies on national institutional frameworks for water resources development and management of the seven countries of IGAD apart from the inclusion of scattered information and data under the studies targeting water resources, socio-economic, and environment.
Common vision, mission, broad objectives, policies, and strategies for the development and management of areas of common interest have been developed. Strategic Elements were identified for the harmonization of strategies.
Capacity building is a continuous process reflecting the need of the society to respond to new ideas and technologies and changing social and political realities. The lack of adequate institutional capacities in the water sector in the IGAD countries, for joint development and management of shared water resources, is imposing severe limitation to water resources development and management.
The policy, legal, and institutional frameworks as well as, the common strategies and their key elements, the protocol for information and data sharing and exchange, and the plans for human and institutional capacity building are similar to that for the joint TRBO, and can be applied to a single or more shared river basin resources in the IGAD Sub-Region.
Development of a road map for establishing Transboundary River Basin Organization(s) (TRBO) includes the setting up of a transboundary consultative mechanism for each basin. Policies, strategies, and objectives of cooperation and how to achieve them shall be set out in the proposed enabling legal instruments to be signed by the riparian Member States of IGAD to the agreement

IGAD
Institutional framework component
Water Resources Management
Studies & Reports
OSS
9773-856-01-5
2004

Serving as a driving and facilitating force, OSS, in carrying out the SASS Programme, relies first and foremost on the expertise available in specialised, well experienced institutions of the three countries as well as on broad international partnership. The North-Western Sahara Aquifer System, (NWSAS), shared by Algeria, Tunisia and Libya, has considerable water reserves that cannot be totally exploited and are only very partially renewed. The NWSAS area over a million km2 and is composed of two major aquifers layers, the Continental Intercalary and the Terminal Complex. Over the last thirty years, abstraction by drilling has risen from 0.6 to 2.5 billion m3/yr. This rate of abstraction involves many risks: strong impact on neighbouring countries, salinisation, elimination of artesianism, drying up of outlets, etc. Simulations on the NWSAS Model have enabled OSS to pinpoint the location of the most vulnerable areas and map the risks facing the aquifer system. The three countries concerned by the future of the NWSAS will need to work together to develop a joint management system for the basin. A consultation mechanism needs to be instituted and gradually put into operation. The present report relates to the "Data Base & Geographic Information System". It summarizes the various reports drafted for the phases of this action. It is composed of two main parts: the first part presents the architecture of this data base and of the software products made during the project ; the second part gives a detailed description of the data collected, both by the national teams of the countries and by the permanent SASS team.

SASS
Data Base and GIS
Water Resources Management
Studies & Reports
OSS
9973-856-00-7
2004

Serving as a driving and facilitating force, OSS, in carrying out the SASS Programme, relies first and foremost on the expertise available in specialised, well experienced institutions of the three countries as well as on broad international partnership.

The North-Western Sahara Aquifer System, (NWSAS), shared by Algeria, Tunisia and Libya, has considerable water reserves that cannot be totally exploited and are only very partially renewed. The NWSAS area over a million km2 and is composed of two major aquifers layers, the Continental Intercalary and the Terminal Complex. Over the last thirty years, abstraction by drilling has risen from 0.6 to 2.5 billion m3/yr. This rate of abstraction involves many risks: strong impact on neighbouring countries, salinisation, elimination of artesianism, drying up of outlets, etc. Simulations on the NWSAS Model have enabled OSS to pinpoint the location of the most vulnerable areas and map the risks facing the aquifer system. The three countries concerned by the future of the NWSAS will need to work together to develop a joint management system for the basin. A consultation mechanism needs to be instituted and gradually put into operation.

The present report is part of a set of three volumes which sum up the scientific activity of the project "North-Western Sahara Aquifer System" (SASS/OSS). It present the physiographic and hydrogeological data which have been taken into consideration in developing the digital model that simulates the hydrodynamic behaviour of the Saharan aquifers.

The present report presents respectively:

the aquifer formations of the North-Western Sahara and their schematisation with a view to their hydrogeological modelling;
the various hydrogeological characteristics of the aquifers of this system through an analysis that is focused on hydraulic exchanges and the impact of the exploitation on piezometry and on water salinity;
the chemical quality of the water and its isotopic characteristics allowing a better understanding of the hydrodynamic operating of the system.

SASS
Hydrogeology
Water Resources Management
Studies & Reports
OSS
978-9973-856-85-2
2014

The North-Western Sahara Aquifer System (SASS) is a basin of over 1,000,000 km2 shared by three countries (Algeria, Tunisia, Libya) whose water reserves are substantial with an almost fossilized aspect.

Previous studies on the SASS had focused on the characteristics and operation of the aquifer as well as the evolution of abstractions, but rarely on the valuation of the water. Phase III of the SASS project aims to restore this equilibrum by promoting the sustainable management of water resources which is the most limiting factor to any stable economic activity.

This study related to socioeconomic aspects of irrigation represents one of the two main components of the SASS III project. It aims to enrich the achievements of the hydrogeological knowledge of water resources through socio-economic and environmental data. It analyzes the operation of farms and especially the actual behavior of the irrigators with particular emphasis on ability to adapt to the challenges that threaten the sustainability of the development.

The analysis of surveys done on 3,000 farmers helped identify the main constraints to water productivity, but also to quantify the scope of their economic impact and to make recommendations to enhance the value of the resource.

SASS
Socio-economic aspects
Water Resources Management
Studies & Reports